Category Archives: Internet

Tips To Recover PC Or Devices Not Connect To My Wireless Router

Nothing is more frustrating when something just won’t work after spending hours trying to make it work. That’s what PC’s and wireless networks do best…frustrate you to no end.

One of the biggest problems I come across, is when someone can’t get their PC connected to their wireless home network. Yet, it seems to connect everywhere else but in their house.

Before I get the chance to look at it, I hear a long laundry list of things that were attempted to get the wireless connection working. Like re-typing the encryption password a thousand times, “rebooting the router first then my PC” (and a dozen other different ways), even moving the PC closer to the router.

Nothing works

But there are always two things missing in that list, if checked, may have saved hours of frustration and allowed more hours of surfing the web.

The “Usual” Culprit

The biggest item that can easily trip you up when troubleshooting wireless connection problems is NOT checking the wireless speed configuration on the router and PC.

Wireless speeds are 802.11 b/g/n, where:

802.11b operates at a maximum throughput speed of 11Mbit/second (and is being phased out with newer PC’s and routers)
802.11g operates at a maximum throughput speed of 54 Mbits/second
802.11n operates at a maximum throughput speed of 300 Mbit/second
Say you have a router that supports b, g and n speeds. Your PC, which you owned for a while, may have a wireless card that is only capable of running b and g speeds, but still won’t connect to the router.

Chances are, if you check your wireless router configuration, it may be set to enforce g only. Because of this, it’s not allowing your PC to connect with one of the lower speeds (in this case b or g).

The solution, change the speed configuration on the router to auto or mix (allowing for all speeds that is supported by the router). You PC will now be able to connect to your router…finally.

This solution will also work for your other devices that may be having trouble connecting to your wireless router, such as Xbox, PS3, Wii, Android phone or IPhone. Basically anything that can connect via a wireless connection.

NOTE: When you select “Auto” on your router, the maximum speed on your network will be determined by the slowest device connected to your router. For example, if you have two devices that can connect using 802.11n, and one device that connects using 802.11g, the max speed on your network will be 802.11g (54 Mbits/second). There is nothing wrong with this, but you should be aware of this when troubleshooting wireless speed problems.

If you don’t want to change your router configuration to auto, check your PC wireless network card setting. It’s possible, the speed it uses may only be set to use g, while your router is set to use n only (instead of auto). Typically PC wireless network cards are usually set to auto, but it never hurts to verify.

To check the settings on your Windows PC :

click on Start, then enter ncpa.cpl in the Run box (on Windows 7 you can also click on Start –> Control Panel -> Network and Sharing Center -> Change adapter settings).
next right click on your wireless adapter and select properties. then click the Configure button

make sure the advanced tab is selected, and look for the speed setting (some network cards are set auto by default and do not provide an option to change it.
Another scenario, is when your router only supports connection speeds of g and n, while your PC wireless card is old and can only run b connections.

If this is the case, check to see if a new driver is available for the wireless card. Otherwise, you may need to purchase a new wireless card to solve the problem.

As you can see, there are many scenarios that could be tripping you up when trying to troubleshoot wireless speed problems. Bottom line, check all devices and make sure they are configured to use the same speed or are set to auto.

Keep in mind, if you don’t use auto configuration on your router and set it to use only one speed, you may run into problems down the road when attempting to setup other devices in your home. Just something you will need to be aware of (and avoid being frustrated).

The “Other” Culprit

Wireless is great and eliminates the hassle of needing to connect devices using cables or wires. One drawback to a wireless signal is that it can be prone to interference.

Such is the case when PC or devices are unable to communicate with your router (or very poorly). Most Wireless routers operate at 2.4Ghz band (other WI-Fi routers may use 5Ghz band). In this band, you can select a Channel (1,4,6, 9, 11, etc) to broadcast on.

This is where issues with connectivity can occur, such as wireless connections constantly dropping (after being connected), poor performance, etc.

If you have phones or even a microwave that operates on or close to the band (such as 2.4Ghz) that your router is operating on, the possibility exist for causing havoc on your wireless network.

The solution? Try changing the channel your router is broadcasting on. By doing so, you may be able to move far enough away on the channel (frequency) spectrum that the offending devices are on, and eliminate the problem.

To make the change, access your wireless router administration page and select a channel.

For example, if you have a Linksys router, open up your browser and enter or

Once you have connected and logged on to to your Wireless router, go to the page for the Wireless channel setting, and change it to another channel. You may need to experiment to see which channels performs best for you.

NOTE: If you still can’t connect to your router, open a command prompt on your PC (click Start -> then enter cmd in the run box). At the prompt, enter ipconfig. Look for your wireless adapter and use the IP address next to Default Gateway.

If You Still Can’t Connect

Another possible reason you can’t get your PC or devices connected, could be caused by the encryption type.

If WPA2 is being used on your wireless router, make sure you are using WPA2 on the device that you are trying to connect. If you are using WEP (hopefully not), the same is needed on the connecting device.

Know More How To Hack Your Friends or Family Home Wireless Network

It’s just in my nature to do it. What you may ask.

Snoop around on a wireless network to see what is open and vulnerable.

Now don’t get me wrong, I don’t do it to hack into systems. I do it to show friends and family that just because they have a router with a firewall protecting their network from the Internet, the need to also secure devices on the inside network is just as important.

I’ve been known to cause havoc on wireless home networks such as having their printer spew paper onto the floor, or easily log into the router and disable access because they were lazy with using a password that was their home address (or worse, never changing the default password).

The shock of what just happen catches their attention.

For that matter, who needs to be stealthy when you can walk around their house and press a key on the keyboard only to reveal the PC is not password protected (social engineering remains an easy method for hackers, just ask the NSA).

My point is, you need to be vigilant with securing your home wireless network. NOT just from intruders on the outside, but also from trusted people on the inside.

You will be surprise how often your buddies or a drunk relative will freely pass along the wireless password (or passphrase as sometimes it is also called) to someone so they can hop on your network to preserve their precious mobile data usage, which can cost a premium these days. At this point, you better trust that person or hope things are secure….on the inside.

Learning to Hack (in a respectful manner)

Now, what I am about to show you, should only be used for good and only to help people. Don’t be evil and use these tools with malicious intent. Because with systems and networks, more than likely it will log your tracks and you will get caught if you go to far. Remember, unauthorized access is breaking the law, even if you know the person.

Since we will be talking about wireless access, the preferred device to use is your mobile phone. And the tool I use is Fing (available at Google Play Store or Apple App Store).

Fing is a free network scanner that will scan and map the network you are connected to, and discover all devices on the network. Additionally, Fing also has a subset of tools such as ping, traceroute, DNS lookup, and more importantly a port scanner (which I’ll show you why it’s very useful). Basically Fing is a swiss army tool for your network.

Obviously, to use Fing with your smartphone you need to be connected to a wireless network.

Once you are connected to a friend or family network, launch Fing and allow it to scan the network. As it scans, it will list the devices that are connected to the network.

As shown in the image above, there are not many devices connected to the network. But a closer look will reveal two very interesting devices. For instance, tap on the device that ends in 148 to display info about the device.

Aahaa, we found a printer. Let’s see if the printer is running web services. To find out, simply press Scan Services at the bottom and let Fing run a port scan to discover which ports the printer it is listening on.

As you can see, there are two ports we are interested in – 80 and 443. These ports indicate the printer is running web services (port 80 is HTTP and port 443 is HTTPS which uses encryption). To connect to the printer via a browser, let’s try port 80 by tapping on 80 then also tapping Open browser in the pop up window.

Oh man, that was too easy. Not only was it easy to connect and display the printer status as well as view the printer configuration, there was no password to make the connection! Let’s put this device on the list “tightening up security” when I talk to my friend.

No sense at this point to test port 443, since it will also connect to the printer, with out a password (sort of makes encryption useless when no password is needed). So let’s see what else is on the network.

The next device of interest to me is labeled RT-N66R. Want to take a guess what that is? Yep that’s the router. While I am familiar with the model RT-N66R being an Asus router, the other sure sign that it is a router, is the IP address of

Sure hope this thing is not wide open like the printer was.

To find out, repeat the same steps as above, but tap on the device ending in 1 to first display information about the device.

Yep, it’s an Asus router. Time to run a port scan by tapping on Scan Services.

Hmmm, this is interesting, we don’t immediately see the usual web service ports 80 or 443. That’s because the router is actually using port 8443 for it’s web service. And, more than likely, the 443 indicates it is using encryption (port 443 is the standard for HTTPS encryption). At this point, there is some hope that the router was securely configured properly. Let’s dig a little deeper and see if that is true.

TIP: to find out what port a router listens on, just do a Google search for the router model that was found during the network discovery.

Tap on 8443. In this case, I don’t see that a browser option is available. All I need to do is open the browser that I use on my phone and type the address as follows: (NOTE: you may need to accept the Security certificate to proceed after pressing enter).

Oh-oh, a login prompt. Well this is encouraging. Hopefully they changed the default router password. All routers come from the manufacturer with a default password and account. In the case of Asus, the account is admin and the password is admin (oh well, let’s not make this to hard Asus).

Attempting to use the defaults to log on, fails. That’s good news. But since I don’t give up easily, I’m going to try other passwords that may have been used (remember the home address one).

After several attempts at trying to guess the password, it looks like I’m not going to be successful with logging in to the router.

That’s good news to the owner of the network. And with no other device of interest on their network, it’s time to tell them about that printer. Hopefully they can secure it with a strong password!

As you can see, Fing is a valuable tool for accessing a network and identifying security and vulnerabilities. While I just demonstrated two capabilities of Fing – network discovery and port scanning, it has other features and tools that can help with locking down your internal network…and keep the bad guys like me, from wrecking havoc on your network.

Now that you know how to probe a network for weak points of access, this would a good time to evaluate your own wireless network and tighten security up a bit. In the next article, I’ll give you some tips on what and how to make your network more secure on the inside.

Tips To Secure Your Wireless Home Network

So you’re having a big party and inviting friends over who are bringing their friends along. No doubt you have everything ready to throw a big bash.

Except one thing….

Is your home network secure enough to handle that dodgy looking friend – friend who ask you if he can have the password to connect to your wireless network?

This is when reality sets in and you realize more attention should have been made with locking down devices on your network. Time to panic.

Instead of having moments like this, let’s look at some tips for locking down your home network from the inside.

Tip #1 – Use Wireless Router Guest Mode

If there was one feature with wireless routers that is worth every penny, it’s guest mode (as long as router manufactures don’t botch guest mode implementation….yes Linksys is one of them).

Using guest mode isolates your main network and prevents guests from casually snooping around on the network. It also prevents the use of sophisticated network tools from scanning the inside network.

Sort of like locking the refrigerator and making guests use the cooler full of cheap beer. It can also prevent malware from infiltrating devices on you main network.

The other benefit of guest mode, is that you don’t need to give anyone your normal Wi-fi passphrase. All you need to do is give them the guest passphrase. Then the next day you can change the password, so nobody from the party can park outside your house and hog your bandwidth. Make sure you reboot the router so everyone gets kicked off your Wi-fi connection and can no longer reconnect (because the password has been changed).

Also with guest mode, you will actually provide a service to your guests, since the connection will be WPA2 encrypted which prevents passwords from being sent in the clear over the network when they log into Facebook or access email.

Tip #2 – Use A Password On Your Computer

Do you usually leave you computer on all time? Is it in a room that’s centrally located? If so, now is a good time to password protect it so nobody can walk up to it and start using it. Think about what you have on your computer – files with personal information, a browser with a gold mine of browsing history, or your music library that can easily be copied to a USB drive.

Sure it can be a hassle at times to always log on to your computer after start up or when it’s idle and the screen saver kicks on, but after a while you will get used to it. Just make sure to use a hard to guess password. Check out these tips for making strong passwords that are easy to remember

Tip #3 – Disable WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup)

Speaking of walking up and using your devices. The same can be said with wireless routers and the Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) functionality. If you router WPS is push button (usually found on back of router), and depending on how WPS is implemented on the router, anyone can walk up and push the button allowing them to easily connect to your network.

In a nut shell. WPS lets you join a secure Wi-Fi network without selecting the network name and entering the password. When the button on your router is pushed, network discovery of new devices is turned on. At his point, all you need to do on your smartphone is select the network and your device is automatically connected.

Not something you want in your house, just for the sake of conveniently connecting devices to the network.

Another reason to disable WPS, is if PIN functionality is used. While it may sound like the use of a PIN is secure, the problem is with how its implemented and that it is vulnerable to brute force attacks. To learn more about the issue with WPS and PINs, check out the following article at Digital Citizen.

Not all routers allow WPS to be disabled and that’s a shame. But if your router does, now is a good time to disable it.

Tip #4 – Easy Access Means Shenanigans At Your Expense

One thing that irks me with technology, is with convenience over security.

For example, can your printer configuration be accessed with a web browser on your wireless network with out entering a password? If so, you may want to set a password (especially if guest mode is not an option on your router) to avoid any mischievous activity with someone jokingly printing all night long.

Unfortunately not all printers can be password protected. If this is case, there is not much you can do, other than unplug it from the wall outlet (hey…it’s only for one night and better than finding all the paper on the floor than in the tray).

Tip #5 – Anything Else On The Network?

You remember that commercial – “What’s in your wallet”… well the same can be said about – “What’s on your network”.

With everything becoming Internet smart, from refrigerators, to TV’s, to thermostats, who can keep track of all network connected devices? No time for lazy thinking.

The easy way to find out, is by logging on your router and see what devices are connected. If for some reason your router does not have this capability (might be a good time to buy a new router), you can easily discover connected devices from your smartphone with the tool Fing. To learn more with how to use Fing, check out the article: How to Hack Your Family and Friends Wireless Network.

Once you have identified all connected devices, look and see if they are secure. If they are not, can they be secured either with a password or some other means. Otherwise,

Tip #6 – When All Else Fails, Shut it Off

Sure it may sound extreme, or even paranoid. But it’s better than being hacked by a prankster.

And there is no better way to squash that prankster than by unplugging things that cannot be secured. Just for one night of course.

Remember, its your place. Unfortunately wireless networks has no boundaries other than distance. But with a little common sense, you can have more control with locking down access to your domain.

Some Ways To Cut Costs On Your Comcast Bill

One of the easiest way to cut cost is to get your own router and modem and say goodby to the rental fee cost. At today’s rate, that’s a $10 saving a month going back into your pocket. You can bet that cost will only be increasing in the future.
If you figure out the cost of a new router and modem, the 2 devices can pay for themselves in approximately 13 months.

For example, pairing up a DOCSIS 3.0 Arris SURFboard SB6183 with a TP-Link N450 Wireless Wi-Fi Router will cost slightly more than one year worth of Comcast rental fee for Internet hardware. While a wireless N router is becoming older technology compared to ac wireless routers, it’s still has enough capacity and bandwidth speed to easily handle your streaming media demands. But if you don’t mind shelling out a few more dollars, you can always opt for the AC router. Just remember, to get the full speed rating of the AC router, you also need to upgrade your wireless adapters (on your computer) or make sure your other devices (smartphone/tablets for example) are AC compliant.

With owning your hardware, you have more control with the configuration and setup. Additionally you will have more stability and better performance with a separate modem and router, than an all-in-one device can provide.

Don’t forget to return the Internet Gateway hardware back to Comcast, otherwise they will not remove the rental fee.

Do I Really Need All These Set Top Boxes

One job function of the Marketing department is to get you excited about all of the possibilities of the latest and greatest technologies available. And Comcast Marketing machine is very good.

Count how many set top boxes are in your house. If you said one, the Marketing department didn’t do a good job, If you said more than one, they did exceptionally well. Why? Because the more hardware that’s in your house displaying the Comcast/Xfinity logo, the more in rental fees it’s going to cost you.

Ask yourself this question – do I really need all these set top boxes? Probably not.

Think about it. Before there were smartphones and tablets, you probably needed a set top box. But now you can stream your channels and On Demand, even X1 cloud saved DVR recordings with the XFinity TV app (via Google Play or Apple App Store) .

Besides what else are you going to use an over priced tablet for, other than email browsing and YouTube videos. Instead turn it into a TV and let it pay for itself, instead of paying Comcast every month.

Better yet, get Chromecast and stream to your TV from your phone, tablet or PC. The cost of purchasing a Chromecast device will pay for itself in less than a year compared to the infinity rental fee of a set top box.

One thing Comcast does not want to lose, is you. Sure you may think being a behemoth company, they could care less about their customers. But the reality is, without customers, they have no business.

So why not take advantage of their awful customer service reputation and get something out of it, like promotional discounts on services. They run them all the time….except they just don’t advertise them. You gotta ask for them.

Now the key to getting a promotional discount from Comcast is simple. Be nice. That’s it.

So what if you think they are out to get you or they are clueless on the phone when you need help. You’re smarter than that. Tell them you have been a loyal customer, and “really like” their service. Butter them up, just like they did to you when they were trying to get you as a customer. Two can play that game, you just need to be smart about it and ask.

You might just be surprised when using this to your advantage and save some money on a monthly basis. As a matter of fact, I didn’t know Comcast offered a Loyalty Discount until I received my next bill. I was floored when I saw the additional $15 discount.The Customer Service rep that I talked to, never mentioned the discount and applied it to my package out of courtesy.

If they do offer other promotional discounts, make sure you fully understand the terms of the promotions, such as the length of the promotion (usually one year) and if it’s really upgrading your service to a different tier. Even though the promotion may lower your bill for one year, it may cost you more than what you currently have after one year.

Doing a little research before calling will prepare you with understanding what channels or broadband speeds are available with the different tiers, as well with the terminology used by Comcast.

Their Competitor is Your Friend.

If you are lucky enough to have another provider in the area, dangling spectacular offers in front of you, then use it to your advantage. One way or another you will save money.

Nothing eats at the core of business than the guy down the street with a better offer. Especially when the competitor marketing machine is pitching cheaper prices for basically the same Internet/TV service. Comcast does not want to lose existing customers to anybody. In my case that would be Verizon.

Before calling Comcast, read the offer from the other competitor to understand the type of service and package they have. As previously mentioned, research and make notes about the offer before making the call. Being prepared will give you an advantage.


I’m sure you read all over the Internet all you really need to do is threaten Comcast with discontinuing your service.

Just ask yourself one question before doing this. Are you really prepared to cut ties today? If not, you could easily find yourself with Internet service before the day is over.

Before pulling the plug, make the attempt to lower your bill first. If you really do want to cancel, don’t call Comcast first. Get yourself ready with another provider and schedule service for installation. This way you will be able to time the new service activation and cutting off Comcast on the same day, with out losing cable/Internet service for any length of time.

Get More Efficient Internet Searching

Did you hate memorizing seemingly insignificant facts for tests at school? No photographic memory? Good news! Life is now an open-book exam — assuming you have a computer, browser, and Internet access. If you know how to use a good search engine, you don’t have to stuff your mind with facts that are useful only when playing Jeopardy! and Trivial Pursuit.

Chances are, you aren’t the first person to run across the problem you are experiencing. Chances are also good that an answer is awaiting your discovery on the Internet — you just have to remove the irrelevant pages and the unhelpful/incorrect results to find that needle in the haystack.

Google has been fanatical about speed. There is little doubt that it has built an incredibly fast and thorough search engine. Unfortunately, the human element of the Internet search equation is often overlooked. These 10 tips are designed to improve that human element and better your Internet search skills.

1: Use unique, specific terms

It is simply amazing how many Web pages are returned when performing a search. You might guess that the terms blue dolphin are relatively specialized. A Google search of those terms returned 2,440,000 results! To reduce the number of pages returned, use unique terms that are specific to the subject you are researching.

2: Use the minus operator (-) to narrow the search

How many times have you searched for a term and had the search engine return something totally unexpected? Terms with multiple meanings can return a lot of unwanted results. The rarely used but powerful minus operator, equivalent to a Boolean NOT, can remove many unwanted results. For example, when searching for the insect caterpillar, references to the company Caterpillar, Inc. will also be returned. Use Caterpillar -Inc to exclude references to the company or Caterpillar -Inc -Cat to further refine the search.

3: Use quotation marks for exact phrases

I often remember parts of phrases I have seen on a Web page or part of a quotation I want to track down. Using quotation marks around a phrase will return only those exact words in that order. It’s one of the best ways to limit the pages returned. Example: “Be nice to nerds”.Of course, you must have the phrase exactly right — and if your memory is as good as mine, that can be problematic.

4: Don’t use common words and punctuation

Common terms like a and the are called stop words and are usually ignored. Punctuation is also typically ignored. But there are exceptions. Common words and punctuation marks should be used when searching for a specific phrase inside quotes. There are cases when common words like the are significant. For instance, Raven and The Raven return entirely different results.

5: Capitalization

Most search engines do not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase, even within quotation marks. The following are all equivalent:

6: Drop the suffixes

It’s usually best to enter the base word so that you don’t exclude relevant pages. For example, bird and not birds, walk and not walked. One exception is if you are looking for sites that focus on the act of walking, enter the whole term walking.

7: Maximize AutoComplete

Ordering search terms from general to specific in the search box will display helpful results in a drop-down list and is the most efficient way to use AutoComplete. Selecting the appropriate item as it appears will save time typing. You have several choices for how the AutoComplete feature works:

Use Google AutoComplete. The standard Google start page will display a drop-down list of suggestions supplied by the Google search engine. This option can be a handy way to discover similar, related searches. For example, typing in Tucson fast will not only bring up the suggestion Tucson fast food but also Tucson fast food coupons. Use browser AutoComplete. Use this Google start page to disable the Google AutoComplete feature and display a list of your previous searches in a drop-down box. I find this particularly useful when I’ve made dozens of searches in the past for a particular item. The browser’s AutoComplete feature must be turned on for this option to work. Click one of these links for instructions detailing how to turn AutoComplete on or off in I.E. and Firefox.


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8: Customize your searches

There are several other less well known ways to limit the number of results returned and reduce your search time:

The plus operator (+): As mentioned above, stop words are typically ignored by the search engine. The plus operator tells the search engine to include those words in the result set. Example: tall +and short will return results that include the word and.
The tilde operator (~): Include a tilde in front of a word to return results that include synonyms. The tilde operator does not work well for all terms and sometimes not at all. A search for ~CSS includes the synonym style and returns fashion related style pages —not exactly what someone searching for CSS wants. Examples: ~HTML to get results for HTML with synonyms; ~HTML -HTML to get synonyms only for HTML.
The wildcard operator (*): Google calls it the fill in the blank operator. For example, amusement * will return pages with amusement and any other term(s) the Google search engine deems relevant. You can’t use wildcards for parts of words. So for example, amusement p* is invalid.
The OR operator (OR) or (|): Use this operator to return results with either of two terms. For example happy joy will return pages with both happy and joy, while happy | joy will return pages with either happy or joy.
Numeric ranges: You can refine searches that use numeric terms by returning a specific range, but you must supply the unit of measurement. Examples: Windows XP 2003..2005, PC $700 $800.
Site search: Many Web sites have their own site search feature, but you may find that Google site search will return more pages. When doing research, it’s best to go directly to the source, and site search is a great way to do that. Example: rapid storage technology.
Related sites: For example, can be used to find sites similar to YouTube.
Change your preferences: Search preferences can be set globally by clicking on the gear icon in the upper-right corner and selecting Search Settings. I like to change the Number Of Results option to 100 to reduce total search time.
Forums-only search: Under the Google logo on the left side of the search result page, click More | Discussions or go to Google Groups. Forums are great places to look for solutions to technical problems.
Advanced searches: Click the Advanced Search button by the search box on the Google start or results page to refine your search by date, country, amount, language, or other criteria.
Wonder Wheel: The Google Wonder Wheel can visually assist you as you refine your search from general to specific.

9: Use browser history

Many times, I will be researching an item and scanning through dozens of pages when I suddenly remember something I had originally dismissed as being irrelevant. How do you quickly go back to that Web site? You can try to remember the exact words used for the search and then scan the results for the right site, but there is an easier way. If you can remember the general date and time of the search you can look through the browser history to find the Web page.

10: Set a time limit — then change tactics

Sometimes, you never can find what you are looking for. Start an internal clock, and when a certain amount of time has elapsed without results, stop beating your head against the wall. It’s time to try something else:

Use a different search engine, like Yahoo!, Bing, Startpage, or Lycos.
Ask a peer.
Call support.
Ask a question in the appropriate forum.
Use search experts who can find the answer for you.
The bottom line

A tool is only as useful as the typing fingers wielding it. Remember that old acronym GIGO, garbage in, garbage out? Search engines will try to place the most relevant results at the top of the list, but if your search terms are too broad or ambiguous, the results will not be helpful. It is your responsibility to learn how to make your searches both fast and effective.

The Internet is the great equalizer for those who know how to use it efficiently. Anyone can now easily find facts using a search engine instead of dredging them from the gray matter dungeon — assuming they know a few basic tricks. Never underestimate the power of a skilled search expert.